Opel Astra, Zafira

Since 1998 of release

Repair and car operation



Opel Astra
+ Cars Opel Astra and Zafira
+ The operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
- The engine
   Specifications
   Check компрессионного pressure in cylinders
   Diagnostics of a condition of the engine with vacuum gauge application
   + Procedures of repair of petrol engines SOHC without their extraction from the car
   + Procedures of repair of petrol engines DOHC without their extraction from the car
   + Procedures of repair of diesel engines of 1.7 l and 2.0 l without their extraction from the car
   + The general and engine major repairs
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ Onboard electric equipment



The engine

The general information


The general scheme of functioning of system of greasing of the engines used for a complete set of cars Opel Astra/Zafira

1 — Shesterenchatyj (роторный) the oil pump
2 — Maslozabornik
3 — the Pallet картера
4 — Polnopotochnyj the oil filter
5 — Reduktsionnyj the valve

6 — Main маслоток
7 — the Radical neck of a cranked shaft
8 — Shatunnaja a neck of a cranked shaft
9 — Maslotok of vertical giving of oil
10 — a camshaft Neck

Lineup Opel Astra/Zafira differs in extreme width of a spectrum of consumers of engines brought to attention. The full list of considered models of engines applied to a complete set is resulted in Specifications in the beginning of the present Chapter. In view of limitation of a place, in the present Management some, most typical representatives of each class of applied engines are offered attention of readers only, namely: petrol 8-klapannyj engine SOHC in volume of 1.6 l (a code of manufacturer X16SZR), a number petrol 16-klapannyh engines DOHC in volume from 1.4 to 2.0 l (codes of manufacturer X14XE, X16XEL, X18XE1 and X20XEV which later updating was engine X20XER used for a complete set of models Astra-ОРС); And also 8-klapannye diesel engines in volume of 1.7 l SOHC and DOHC (codes X17DTL and Y17DT accordingly) and two representatives турбированных 16-klapannyh diesel engines SOHC in volume of 2.0 l (codes X20DTL/Y20DTL with низконапорным a turbo-supercharging and Y20DTH with pressurisation of a high pressure). In the beginning of the Head Specifications with a statement of detailed technical characteristics of the listed engines are resulted.

Petrol engines of 1.6 l SOHC

Рядный 4-cylinder 8-klapannyj the engine, with one camshaft of the top arrangement (SOHC). It is established cross-section in a forward part of the car. Transmissionnaja assemblage is located to the left of the engine and transfers a twisting moment developed by last to forward wheels of the car.

The block of cylinders is made of an aluminium alloy and equipped by sleeves of dry type.

Observe the ordered efforts of a tightening of carving connections as aluminium moulding concerns a category of soft materials and the tightening of fixture of components with excessive effort can lead to damage of carving apertures!

The cranked shaft rotates in five slidings equipped by bearings radical support. Regulating axial люфт a shaft persistent half rings are established on the central (third) support of a shaft.

Rods are planted on working necks of a cranked shaft by the equipped bearings of sliding and horizontally cut bottom heads. To pistons rods fasten by means of planted внатяг in their top heads of piston fingers, — in pistons fingers have floating landing. The pistons cast from aluminium are equipped by three piston rings, — two компрессионными and one (bottom) маслосъемным.

The camshaft rotates in the bed strengthened from above of a head of cylinders, and is resulted in rotation from a cranked shaft by means of a rubber gear belt (the same belt is used for a drive of the water pump). Ekstsentrikovye cams of a camshaft influence levers of a drive of the valves which working ends rest against end faces passed in directing plugs and equipped маслоотражательными caps of cores подпружиненных valves. The opposite ends of levers lean in the hydraulic jacks, carrying out automatic sample клапанных backlashes.

The system of greasing of the engine works from шестеренчатого the oil pump resulted in rotation from a pin of a cranked shaft. Oil gets through equipped with the mesh filter маслозаборник from the pallet картера the engine and is filtered полнопоточным by the replaceable oil filter. Oil moves on provided in block moulding маслотокам and is distributed on two mainstreams: to bearings of cranked and distributive shaft. In bearings oil moves under pressure through special drillings in bodies of shaft. Greasing of cams of a camshaft and клапанных components, no less than other internal components of the engine is carried out by a method разбрызгивания.

The typical scheme of functioning of system of greasing — see an illustration the General scheme of functioning of system of greasing of the engines used for a complete set of cars Opel Astra/Zafira.

The conclusion from the engine block картерных gases is carried out by means of system of ventilation of half-closed type. Gases are deduced through a cover газораспределительного the mechanism and on a special hose arrive in the inlet pipeline.

Petrol engines of 1.4-2.0 l DOHC

The engine 4-cylinder рядный, 16-klapannyj, is equipped by two camshafts of the top arrangement (DOHC), established cross-section in a forward part of the car. The drive is carried out on forward wheels by means of fixed at the left on the engine трансмиссионной assemblages.
Some of engines 2.0 are equipped the balancing assemblage consisting of two additional shaft providing decrease of intensity of vibrations, connected with functioning of a cranked shaft. Assemblage is established between the block of cylinders and the pallet картера (Removal, installation and adjustment of the balancing mechanism of a cranked shaft (engines 2.0 more in detail see.

The design of the block of cylinders and shatunno-piston groups is similar described above for engines SOHC.

Both camshafts rotate in a head of the block and are resulted from a cranked shaft by a rubber gear belt, simultaneously the employee also for a drive of the water pump. The drive of inlet and final valves is carried out directly from эксцентриковых cams of corresponding camshafts through equipped with hydraulic jacks клапанных backlashes pushers.
Functioning of systems of greasing and ventilation картера occurs also similarly described above for engines SOHC.

Diesel engines of 1.7 l SOHC

The engine 4-cylinder рядный, 8-klapannyj, with one distributive shaft of the top arrangement (SOHC), is established cross-section in a forward part of the car. Transmissionnaja assemblage fastens to the engine at the left and carries out twisting moment transfer on forward wheels.

The block of cylinders is made by a method of pig-iron moulding with the cylinders formed directly in its body (the block with dry sleeves).

The cranked shaft rotates in five slidings equipped by bearings radical support. Regulating axial люфт a shaft persistent half rings are planted in the top half of central (third) support. Distinctive feature of the given engine is application of a cast coupler of support of a cranked shaft.

Rods are planted on a shaft by the bottom horizontally cut heads equipped with bearings of sliding. Cast aluminium pistons are connected to rods by means of the piston fingers freely floating in the top heads of rods and fixed in lugs of pistons by lock rings. Each piston is equipped by three piston rings — two компрессионными and one (bottom) маслосъемным.

Inlet and final valves подпружинены also move in запрессованных to a head of cylinders directing plugs. The camshaft is resulted from a cranked shaft by means of a gear belt and rotates directly in a block head. The drive of valves is carried out from a camshaft by means of established directly under cams приводных levers. Sample клапанных backlashes is made automatically at the expense of equipment of basic racks приводных levers by hydraulic jacks.

The greasing system is organised similarly described above for petrol engines, with that only a difference that for the purpose of increase of intensity of cooling of the bottoms of pistons in the basis of each of block cylinders is established on an oil spray. For maintenance of normal temperature of oil at the raised loadings the engine is in addition equipped маслоохладителем.

Diesel engines of 1.7 l DOHC

The engine 4-cylinder рядный, 16-klapannyj, is equipped by two camshafts of the top arrangement (DOHC), established cross-section in a forward part of the car. The drive is carried out on forward wheels by means of fixed at the left on the engine трансмиссионной assemblages.

Design of the block of cylinders and shatunno-piston groups of 1.7 l SOHC similarly described above for engines, excepting a coupler of radical support of a cranked shaft.

The inlet camshaft rotates in the case газораспределительного the mechanism and is resulted зубчатоременной by transfer directly from a cranked shaft. The drive of a final camshaft is carried out by means of шестеренчатой transfers from an inlet shaft.

Cams of shaft influence cores of the valves placed in directing plugs through the pushers equipped with adjusting washers. Installation клапанных backlashes is carried out manually by selection of washers of a demanded thickness.

The greasing system is organised similarly described above for petrol engines. For the purpose of maintenance of normal temperature of oil at the raised loadings the engine is in addition equipped маслоохладителем.

Diesel engines of 2.0 l SOHCы

Two-litre (1994 sm 3) the engine is among the newest workings out of company Opel and represents 4-cylinder рядную, 16-klapannuju a design with one camshaft of the top arrangement (SOHC). The engine is established cross-section in a forward part of the car, at the left assemblage by means of which the twisting moment is transferred to leading forward wheels is connected to it трансмиссионная.

The cranked shaft rotates in five radical подшипниковых support. The basic half rings regulating size axial люфта of a shaft, are established in the third support.

Rods are planted on necks of a cranked shaft by horizontally cut and equipped loose leaves of bearings of sliding by the bottom heads. Piston fingers have floating landing in the top heads of rods and are fixed by lock rings in lugs on walls of pistons. The pistons cast from aluminium are supplied by three piston rings: two компрессионными and one (bottom) маслосъемным.

The block of cylinders is cast from grey pig-iron. Cylinders make a single whole (dry sleeves) with the block.

Inlet and final valves подпружинены also move in запрессованных to a head of cylinders directing plugs.

The camshaft is resulted from a cranked shaft by means of двухрядного a chain drive: the bottom chain carries out a drive of the fuel pump of a high pressure (ТНВД) directly from a cranked shaft, by means of the top chain the drive of a camshaft from the top chain is organised provides rotation of a camshaft from ТНВД.

The unique camshaft rotates directly in a head of cylinders and carries out a drive sixteen means приводных levers and the pushers equipped with hydraulic jacks. Levers of a drive of valves are established directly under cams and serve everyone for a drive of two valves. Sample клапанных backlashes is made automatically.

The greasing system is organised 1.7 l similarly described above for the engine.

All engines

The list of repair work carried out without extraction of the engine from the car

The following repair work listed more low can be made without removal of the engine from the car:

  1. Compression check;
  2. Removal and cover installation газораспределительного the mechanism;
  3. Removal and installation of a cover of drive ГРМ;
  4. Removal and installation of components of drive ГРМ (a chain belt/, gear wheels / of an asterisk);
  5. Removal and installation натяжителя газораспределительного a belt / of a chain and успокоителей chains diesel engines (engines 2.0);
  6. Removal and camshaft installation (ов) and levers of a drive of valves / of pushers);
  7. Adjustment клапанных backlashes (diesel engines of 1.7 l DOHC);
  8. Removal and installation of a head of cylinders;
  9. Removal and installation of pistons from rods *;
  10. Removal and pallet installation картера;
  11. Removal, regenerative repair and installation of the oil pump;
  12. Removal and installation маслоохладителя (at a corresponding complete set);
  13. Replacement of epiploons of a cranked shaft;
  14. Check of a condition and replacement of support of a suspension bracket of the power unit;
  15. Removal, check of a condition and flywheel / installation приводного a disk

* Though after removal of a head of the block and the pallet (without removing the engine) there is a possibility of dismantle of shatunno-piston assemblages, it is not necessary to abuse such possibility in view of the complexities connected with necessity of observance of cleanliness and carrying out of some preparatory procedures. In view of told, the description of the given procedure see the General and engine major repairs.

Before the beginning of works make careful cleaning of an impellent compartment and external surfaces of the power unit with application of one of a wide spectrum of special solvents. Such processing will allow to avoid hit of a dirt in the engine.

In case of need, forthcoming work defined by character, it is possible to remove a cowl for the purpose of maintenance of freedom of access to components subject to service (the Body see the Head), — in order to avoid casual damage of a paint and varnish covering cover car wings with special covers, or simply old blankets.