Opel Astra, Zafira
Since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Cars Opel Astra and Zafira
- The operation manual
The panel of devices
The information display
Additional electronic devices
Elements of systems of safety of the car
The salon equipment
+ Routine maintenance
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
+ Engine electric equipment
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
Обкатка the new car
To provide reliability and durability of the car in operation, throughout the first 600 km of run it is necessary to adhere to following rules:
After repair or engine replacement, and also after replacement brake колодок it is necessary to observe similar restrictions and recommendations.
Type of applied fuel
Refuelling of a fuel tank
The refuelling mouth of a fuel tank is located on the left side of the car, therefore to approach to топливораздаточной to a column at a gasoline station follows the left board.
Access, protection see.
The control of level of engine oil
The description of procedure of check of level of oil is resulted in the Head Routine maintenance.
The control of level of a cooling liquid of the engine
The description of procedure of check of level of a cooling liquid is resulted in the Head Routine maintenance.
Transportation of cargoes in the car
The car is equipped by the several capacities intended for placing of transported subjects.
The ware branches located in salon of the car are intended for placing of small subjects. Pockets concern their number the main ware box in panels of devices, door pockets and the pockets located in backs of seats, and also built in the panel of devices.
Large-sized subjects should be placed in a car luggage space. Transportation of lengthy subjects becomes possible thanks to a collapsible design of backs of a back seat (the salon Equipment see).
It is necessary to remember, however, that wrong transportation of cargoes can negatively affect controllability and stability of the car and, hence, to lower safety. Before transporting this or that cargo in the car, familiarise with the information resulted more low.
Rules of transportation of cargoes
The maximum load-carrying capacity of the car
By transportation cargoes in the car it is necessary to consider that the full weight of the car should not exceed the maximum admissible value. The full weight of the car includes: the equipped weight of the car, weight of the driver and passengers, weight of the hook-on device established on the car, and also weight of the trailer having on it. At any variants of loading of the car of loading on an axis also should not exceed limiting admissible values. The information on the maximum admissible values of full weight and axial loadings is resulted in Specifications (the Operation manual see).
Transportation of cargoes in car salon
Reliably fix all placed in salon of the car subjects, in order to avoid their displacement in case of road and transport incident.
Do not place large-sized subjects on a back shelf of salon, — they narrow to the driver sector of the review and can be dumped forward at collision and sharp braking.
Be convinced of that the subjects laid on a floor behind forward seats, cannot be rolled forward and under no circumstances are not capable to prevent to manipulate freely to the driver management pedals, and also cannot break correctness of adjustment of position of forward seats.
Hold a ware box during movement by the closed.
Transportation of cargoes in a luggage space or on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car
Try to distribute cargo in regular intervals, placing luggage probably is closer to seats. Heavy cargoes always should settle down from below, on a luggage space floor. Reliably fix transported subjects a strong cord that they could not be displaced on the move the car. Never stack luggage above level of backs of forward seats.
By transportation large-sized or lengthy subjects at the combined back seats, try to fix reliably their strong cord to prevent displacement of cargo during emergency braking of the car. Do not stack luggage above level of backs of seats in order to avoid reduction of sector of the review to the driver.
The description of operations of folding of backs of back seats and their installation in a starting position — see the salon Equipment.
In need of transportation of the lengthy subjects, not allowing to close a door of a back / a luggage space cover, remember that the fulfilled gases of the engine can get to car salon, — carry out corresponding safety measures (the salon Equipment see).
At cargo placing on a luggage carrier established on a roof of the car, track, that the cumulative weight of luggage did not exceed admissible value. For reception of more detailed information address on company Opel car repair shop.
Features of start of the engine in cold weather in the conditions of high mountains (height above sea level more than 2400 )
Five-step manual box of a gear change
For maintenance of smooth and unaccented switching all transfers of a forward course are synchronised. After transfer of the lever of switching of a transmission in position of the following transfer smoothly release a coupling pedal. During movement on the chosen transfer completely remove a foot from a pedal of coupling in order to avoid premature deterioration of components of the mechanism of the last.
Include backing transfer only after a full stop of the car. Attempt include a backspacing on the move can to lead to serious damage of a transmission. Before reverse gear inclusion completely switch off coupling and sustain short (in some seconds) a pause.
For car delay it is possible to take advantage of braking by the engine, having switched a transmission to one of the lowered steps. Braking by the engine allows to supervise speed of movement of the car at safe level and prevents an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents with a considerable bias. Switch a transmission to the lowered steps consistently, in process of decrease in speed not to admit excess of as much as possible admissible frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine on a tachometre. The arrow of a tachometre should not come into a red zone of a scale. In all cases it is necessary to be guided by values of the maximum admissible speed of the car on corresponding transfers (see more low).
The recommended moments of a gear change
Try to move on as much as possible high transfer providing in concrete road conditions normal functioning of the engine at uniform movement and possibility of smooth dispersal of the car. Following of this recommendation will provide high profitability of the car and effective work of system of neutralisation of the fulfilled gases.
As much as possible admissible speeds of movement of the car on various transfers
Watch timeliness of a gear change, — try not to suppose calling of an arrow of a tachometre in the range of a measuring scale allocated with red colour.
In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometre does not exceed as much as possible admissible speed of movement on the given transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.
On cars of the considered mark the four-stage hydromechanical automatic transmission with the blocked hydrotransformer and an elektronno-hydraulic control system is established. The control system of a transmission provides timely and smooth switching of all steps of a forward course. Hydrotransformer blocking improves profitability of the expense of fuel. On subjective sensations inclusion of a blocking friction clutch of the hydrotransformer similar on usual switching of a step of a transmission.
Positions of the lever of the selector of ranges
At switching of ranges of an automatic transmission move the lever along a directing groove. The lever of switching of ranges is blocked in position «Р» if the ignition key will turn in position «LOCK» (0) or «АСС» (I). In this case the conclusion of the lever from position «Р» is impossible even at squeezing of a brake pedal.
Position «Р». In this position of the lever of the selector of ranges the secondary shaft of transmission is mechanically blocked. Always translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position «Р» at deenergizing or engine start. To deduce the lever of the selector of ranges from position «Р», it is necessary to squeeze out a brake pedal, preliminary having released a gas pedal. Reject the lever of the selector of ranges to the right and deduce it from position «Р». If after performance of all listed above actions still it is not possible to deduce the lever from position «Р», it is necessary to unblock it, following the instructions stated more low.
In order to avoid breakage АТ translate the lever in position «Р» only after a full stop of the car.
Position «R». Receptions of management by the lever of the selector of ranges while translating it in position «R» (Backing) from position «Р» are described above. Lever inclusion in position «R» from position «N» make only after a full stop of the car.
Automatic transmission is equipped by a special safety device which does not allow to move casually the lever to position «R» if speed of the car exceeds value of 10-12 km/h.
If the backing does not join after a full stop of the car, squeeze out a brake pedal and slowly move the lever of the selector of ranges at first to position «N», then in position «R».
At malfunction of a safety device, and also at disconnected from an onboard network or the discharged storage battery to include a backing range it is impossible. In this case it is necessary to remove blocking of inclusion of a range of a backing, following instructions stated more low.
Position «N». Use position «N» at start of the decayed engine on the move and at short stops of the car with working engine. If for any reason it is necessary for you to depart from the car, preliminary translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position «Р» (Parking). At a conclusion of the lever of position «N» squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake.
Position «D». In this position the lever of the selector of ranges should be constantly at car movement in normal road conditions. In a range «D» the automatic gear change of a forward course in all range of transfers depending on speed of movement of the car and degree of pressing an accelerator pedal is provided. During movement of the car you can notice that automatic switchings on the higher transfers occurs later, that is at higher speeds of movement if the car engine is yet heated-up to normal working temperature. The given function provides faster warming up of the engine.
Position «3». If the lever of the selector of ranges is included in position «3», the automatic transmission functions to a similar case of inclusion of a range «D». Difference consists that transition to the fourth transfer is excluded. The range «3» is recommended to be used at trailer towage in hilly district or for realisation of braking by the engine on descent of a considerable steepness. Inclusion of a range «3» is useful also for an exception of superfluous cyclic switchings of automatic transmission between the third and fourth transfers. Similar cyclic switchings of a transmission can be observed, for example, at movement in a dense transport stream with frequent delays and car stops.
For sharp dispersal of the car at transmission work in a range «D» or «3» squeeze out a gas pedal against the stop. Thus the transmission will automatically pass to adjacent lowest transfer (a mode kickdown). If speed of the car is insignificant, the transmission can be switched at once on two steps downwards.
Position «2». At inclusion of a range «2» possibility of switching of transmission on transfers above 2nd step is blocked.
At inclusion of a range «2» on the move the car inclusion of the second transfer to transmissions automatically is late and occurs only after speed of the car will decrease to safe level on which frequency of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine will not exceed as much as possible admissible value.
Position «1». At inclusion of a range «1» automatic transmission will constantly work on the first transfer. If inclusion of a range «1» is made for the speed more than 50 km/h transmission at first will be switched to the second transfer. Inclusion of an intermediate step allows to exclude sharp and unexpected braking by the engine.
The maximum admissible speeds of movement of the car
At excess of the maximum admissible values of speeds of a gear change of the marksman of a tachometre comes into a red zone of a scale, specifying in excess of admissible turns of the engine. Thus the electronic block of a control system starts to limit to the engine turns of a cranked shaft, reducing fuel giving that it is possible to feel on power setting change. Engine work settles into shape, as soon as the arrow of a tachometre leaves a red zone of a scale.
In order to avoid engine breakage before transfer switching, be convinced that the arrow of a tachometre does not come for value of as much as possible admissible speed of movement on the given transfer and is not in a red zone of a scale.
Sports mode of functioning АТ
Winter mode of functioning АТ
Deenergizing of a winter mode occurs by repeated pressing the switch button, transfer of the lever of the selector in position «2» or «1», and also at ignition deenergizing. For the purpose of protection of transmission against internal damages automatic deenergizing of a winter mode occurs also at overheats ATF.
Deenergizing of blocking of the lever of the selector of ranges
At switching-off of power supplies or an excessive discharge of the storage battery the conclusion of the lever of the selector from position «Р» becomes impossible. For an exit from the given situation and removal of blocking of the lever operate as follows:
For prevention of repeated blocking of the lever in position «Р» eliminate the reason of faults of a food.
Refusals of functioning АТ
At refusals of automatic switching of transmission the further movement can be continued in emergency operation, carrying out a gear change manually by means of the selector lever. Thus inclusion of 2nd transfer and switching is completely blocked occurs 1-3-4. The following scheme of a parity of positions of the lever Thus takes place:
1 = 1st transfer
For elimination of causes of failures АТ address on firm car repair shops of company Opel.
Leaving the car on parking, always cock a lay brake. Remember that the control lamp of inclusion of a lay brake built in in an instrument guard, serves only for a reminder to the driver about necessity отпускания a lay brake before a start of motion. Burning of a control lamp does not guarantee completeness of raising of a lay brake. In order to avoid spontaneous скатывания the car on a bias be convinced that the lay brake is cocked properly.
At first it is necessary to cock a lay brake (the Control lamp of infringements of functioning ABS see below the item), and then to include the first or a reverse gear (models with РКПП) / to translate the lever of the selector of ranges of an automatic transmission in position «Р». Such sequence of actions prevents casual трогание the car, and on models with АТ also excludes transfer of considerable loading on the mechanism of blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission from скатывающей the force car, — unloading муфты blocking of a secondary shaft of transmission provides at the subsequent трогании the car simplicity of a conclusion of the lever from position «Р».
At a car parking on lifting, develop forward wheels aside from a border, and on the contrary.
Before a start of motion, be convinced that the lay brake is completely released. At movement with not completely released lay brake the overheat and failure of brake mechanisms of back wheels is possible. Besides, it can lead to infringement of serviceability of functioning ABS.
The recommendation about a safe parking of the car
Track, that the top hatch in a roof and all windows have been closed.
Switch off all devices of illumination.
Put luggage and valuable things in closed branches, or grasp them with itself.
Lock locks of doors by means of a key or a remote control the uniform lock.
On the models equipped with anticreeping system, make sure of inclusion of the indicator of system on the instrument panel which testifies to device activation.
Never leave the car with working engine on the platforms covered with dry foliage, a high grass or other combustible materials. Remember that the case каталитического the converter can be heated to very heat that is fraught with ignition.
The general information
The general information on brake system is resulted in the Head Brake system.
Recommendations about security measures at operation of the models equipped ABS
ABS does not reduce a brake way of the car and it is capable to provide only preservation of controllability of the car in the course of braking. In view of told it is necessary to support constantly a safe distance to ahead going vehicle, proceeding from speed of the car and concrete traffic conditions.
ABS does not prevent lateral юз at sharp change of a direction of movement of the car. For example, the car can enter into drift at turn passage on too high speed or at jerk of a wheel during lane change. Always support safe speed of a vehicle, being conformed to a condition of a road covering and traffic conditions.
ABS does not prevent loss of course stability of the car. In the course of emergency braking avoid sharp jerks of a steering wheel.
The brake way equipped ABS the car can exceed a little habitual for models with usual brake system. Told especially considerably at movement on fragile and rough road coverings (gravel, snow). At movement in similar road conditions lower speed and increase a distance to ahead going vehicle.
Control lamp of infringements of functioning ABS
The self-diagnostics block is included in structure of system of antiblocking. Outwardly procedure of self-diagnostics of system is shown by small pulsations of a foot brake right after engine start. Problem diagnostics ABS is made also at each braking of the car.
At revealing by system of any malfunction on a control panel the corresponding control lamp (the Panel of devices see) lights up. Operation of a control lamp testifies that ABS is disconnected. Thus working capacity of working brake system remains to the full, except for function of automatic control of brake effort which is carried out ABS. If control lamp ABS does not die away after start of the engine or joins in movement time, it is necessary to address at the first possibility on the nearest car repair shop.
Joint inclusion of control lamps ABS and refusals of brake system / of raising of a lay brake also means switching-off of function of regulation of brake effort that specifies in presence of malfunctions both in ABS, and in brake system. Thus the brake system of the car will continue to provide adequate enough braking of the car, however it is necessary to avoid sharp squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake. Immediately address on the nearest car repair shop.
Control system of speed (темпостат)
The control system of speed (темпостат) enters into a standard complete set of some models, on others can be established in addition. The system allows to support automatically the chosen cruiser speed of movement of the car without influence on a gas pedal. Cruiser speed should not exceed value of 30 km/h. Application темпостата becomes especially convenient at long movement on малозагруженным to direct country highways. For the purpose of safety it is not recommended to include темпостат at movement in a city, on twisting, abounding with turns, to roads, on a slippery road covering, in a strong rain or under other adverse weather conditions. In the cases listed above the driver should have possibility completely to supervise a mode of movement of the car.
Management of functioning темпостата
By pressing a key I system is activated also current instant value of speed registers in memory of the processor, — it is possible to release a gas pedal. Accelerator squeezing at included темпостате will lead to car acceleration, after отпускания to a pedal, speed of movement will return to the chosen cruiser value.
Repeated short-term pressing of a key I lead to increase in chosen cruiser value with step of 2 km/h.
Сбрасывание supported cruiser speed it is carried out by short-term pressing key R (the same step).
For compulsory deenergizing темпостата the button 0 serves. Besides, the control system of speed is disconnected automatically at decrease in speed of movement below 30 km/h, squeezing of a pedal of a foot brake or coupling, or transfer of the lever of selector AT in position «N».
For return to brought in memory of the processor of cruiser speed of movement it is enough to press key R at current speed movement above 30 km/h.
Clearing of memory of the processor of the module of management темпостата occurs automatically at ignition deenergizing.
Electronic auxiliary systems
Protivozanosnaja system (ESP)
System ESP activation occurs automatically and allows to improve stability of a course of the car at movement on road with non-uniform on quality of coupling with tyres a covering. The module of management ESP carries out also the functioning control антипробуксовочной systems (TCS) (see more low).
At occurrence of risk of drift of the car on a command arriving from the module of management ESP there is an automatic decrease in capacity developed by the engine, simultaneously occurs растормаживание beginning to go юзом wheels.
Инициация ESP occurs at the included ignition after switching-off of a corresponding control lamp (the Panel of devices see). The Same lamp serves for indication of activation of mode ESP (a flashing mode) that should pay attention of the driver to necessity to be careful at driving. Lamp inclusion in a continuous mode during movement testifies to refusal in system, — for debugging drive away the car on firm car repair shop Opel.
Antiprobuksovochnaja system (TCS)
Component of system a complete set of some models the system (tracking-control) allowing more confidently to get under way from a place can enter антипробуксовочная and to be dispersed on a slippery road covering. The system automatically limits capacity developed by the engine as soon as one of driving wheels loses coupling with a road covering and starts to revolve. To feel operation антипробуксовочной systems it is possible on reaction to a steering wheel.
Инициация systems occurs at the included ignition after switching-off of a corresponding control lamp (the Panel of devices see). The Same lamp serves for indication of activation of mode ESP (a flashing mode) that should pay attention of the driver to necessity to be careful at driving. Lamp inclusion in a continuous mode during movement testifies to refusal in system, — for debugging drive away the car on firm car repair shop Opel.
Compulsory switching-off TCS is not obviously possible.
System of piloting of a parking
The system facilitates a parking a backing by continuous measurement of distance from a back bumper to an obstacle by means of the ultrasonic transceiver.
At approach slowly moving to an obstacle in distance less than 1 m in car salon is distributed by a car backing a pulse precautionary sound signal. In process of reduction of distance to an obstacle frequency of impulses of a signal is reduced. At reduction of distance to 30 sm the signal becomes continuous.
Adjustment of a road gleam (model the Versatile person)
The pneumatic device of adjustment of a road gleam allows to compensate усадку car bodies at high loading. Road clearance updating is carried out by pumping in air in the reception union of a working path of system, — take advantage of the regular pump, the compressor, or pump station at a gasoline station.
After unloading of the car do not forget to dump pressure in system to value 80 кПа.
Recommendations about car driving in adverse weather conditions
Features of driving in adverse road conditions
Driving during a rain, in a strong fog or a snowfall demands from the driver of special skills, in view of decrease in coupling of wheels with a road covering and visibility deterioration. Constantly support the car in technically working order. At fulfilment of trips to bad weather observe extra care. Avoid use темпостата (at a corresponding complete set of the car) in adverse weather conditions.
Lower speed and move more slowly, than usually in normal weather conditions on a dry road covering. Remember that reactions of the car to management will be more languid and slowed down even if the road covering looks only slightly damp. Try to influence all controls of the car smoothly. On a wet and slippery road covering sharp jerk of a steering wheel or careless squeezing of a brake pedal can lead to control loss over management. In the trip beginning, still completely without having adapted for adverse weather conditions, show the raised care. This rule is especially useful for observing at movement during a snowfall. It is necessary to remember that at car operation in a warm season many useful skills of driving of the car on a slippery road covering are forgotten that demands some time for their restoration.
Extra care show, operating the car during a rain as absence of practice during the dry period does not allow to be reconstructed and adapt a driving manner for new conditions quickly.
For safety of traffic in any weather conditions it is very important to have the good review in all directions. It is not necessary to forget to care also that your car remained to well appreciable drivers of other vehicles, — remember that at movement on a line passing light inclusion never will prevent, even in the daytime. These requirements are more difficult for executing in adverse weather conditions.
Regularly check a condition of brushes of screen wipers and snuffled windscreen washers. Constantly support demanded level of a liquid in the tank of a washing liquid. Use for refuelling of system of washing of glasses only the liquids, recommended marks. Watch a condition of working elements of screen wipers, make their replacement as soon as brushes cease to clear glass properly. For prevention of condensation of a moisture on an internal surface of glasses use having blown in glasses air, in case of need include air conditioner.
Coupling of tyres with a road covering
Regularly supervise pressure of air in tyres and degree of a deterioration of protectors of tyres (depth of a pattern). Both these of the factor are extremely important from the point of view of good coupling of tyres with a road covering and prevention of the phenomenon of hydroplaning, that is sharp reduction of coupling with road at entrance to pools. For maintenance of the best controllability with the car and traffic safety at approach of a winter season use шипованную rubber.
During movement constantly observe of changes of road conditions which frequently appear very astable. Presence on road of wet foliage can be not dangerous, than a glaze ice. Often in appearance the pure and dry road covering can обледеневать separate sites. Especially dangerous conditions develop at air temperatures nearby 0°С when pools can alternate with наледью that does behaviour of the car especially unpredictable.
Be cautious at switching of an automatic transmission in the lowered range. On a slippery covering sharp inclusion of a hill-climbing gear can lead to short-term proslipping of driving wheels and car drift.
Extra care and attention are required from the driver at fulfilment of overtakings. Equally it is necessary to observe attentiveness, at overtaking of your car by other vehicles. Splashes of water and a dirt from under wheels of an overtaken lorry can sharply worsen visibility through a windscreen. The impulse of a lateral wind during fulfilment of overtaking of the truck or the bus is dangerous control loss over management.
Models of cars considered in the present Management first of all are, of course, passenger and are intended for transportation of people and their luggage. However, at obligatory observance of some the general rules which are resulted more low, cars Opel can be used also with success for trailer towage.
The full weight of the trailer including its own weight and weight of cargo placed in it, should not exceed limiting admissible weight of the towed trailer (Specifications in the beginning of the Head the Operation manual see). The limiting admissible weight of the trailer depends on that, it is equipped by brake mechanisms, or not.
The maximum vertical loading on the hook-on device of the car at full weight of the trailer should not exceed 50 кГс. For trailers with full weight to 500 kg it is necessary to adhere to a following rule: vertical loading on a turnbuckle should make approximately 10 % from full weight of the trailer. For example, if the full weight of the trailer with cargo is equal 225 kg, vertical loading on the hook-on device should make nearby 22.5 кГс. Adjust loading on a car turnbuckle, in appropriate way placing cargo on the trailer. To begin with it is recommended to place cargo so that approximately 60 % of its weight were ahead of a trailer axis, and 40 % — behind. If the full weight of the trailer exceeds 500 kg, try to distribute cargo on length of the trailer in regular more intervals. Never load the trailer so that the back part of the trailer outweighed a lobby, is leads to unloading of back wheels of the car that worsens coupling of tyres with a road covering.
Full weights of the car and the towed trailer should not exceed corresponding maximum admissible values (Specifications in the beginning of the Head the Operation manual see).
The most reliable way of check of correctness of loading of the car and the trailer is weighing. Load the car and the trailer how they are usually maintained as a part of the lorry convoy, and weigh them on cargo scales. Define values of full weights of the car and the trailer, and also the weights having on an axis of the car and the trailer. Compare results of measurements to requirements of Specifications (the Operation manual see).
The hook-on device
The design of the hook-on device intended for installation on your car should meet completely to the necessary requirements, in case of need consult on company Opel car repair shop.
The hook-on device should fasten in the several specially provided points on the basis of a car body that loadings from the towed trailer were distributed in regular more intervals and had on elements of strengthening of a body. It is forbidden to mount the hook-on devices leaning only on a back bumper which is not intended for perception of similar loadings on the car. Turnbuckle installation should be made car-care centre qualified personnel.
Towage of the large-sized trailer (type "Caravan") usually demands installation on the car of additional rear-view mirrors with the extended arms. Specify requirements of the local legislation and the traffic Rules, concerning towages of trailers by cars. Attach the trailer to the car and estimate degree of deterioration of the back review through standard rear-view mirrors. If the review unsatisfactory from safety reasons it is necessary to equip the special mirrors, providing to the driver the adequate review of space behind the car.
Joining of the trailer to the car
If you are going to get the trailer equipped with brake mechanisms, be convinced that they have an electric drive of management, — the design of a hydraulic drive of working brake system of your car does not provide connection possibility to it of any additional contours, in particular, for actuating of brake mechanisms of the trailer. Any way of joining to a brake hydrodrive of the car of brake system of the trailer, what attractive it would not seem, will lead to deterioration of efficiency of braking of the car and traffic safety decrease.
Attaching the trailer to the car, always use a safety chain. The ends of a safety chain should be reliably fixed to corresponding places on дышле the trailer and on the hook-on device of the car. Track, that the chain passed under дышлом the trailer, is will prevent falling of the forward end дышла on road to a case рассоединения сцепки. The free length of a chain should be sufficient not to disturb to fulfilment of turns of the lorry convoy with the minimum radiuses, however, it is not necessary to suppose chain drawings by the ground.
Devices of external illumination and the alarm system on the trailer
As on trailers of various marks the various lining of electroconducting can be used, it is necessary to charge the turnbuckle equipment to experts of car-care centre. In certain cases installation of a transitive nozzle (adapter) can be demanded.
Before connecting a trailer electric equipment to the car electric system, necessarily consult on a car repair shop.
Preparation for trailer towage
Before a start of motion it is necessary to make control survey and car and trailer check.
Security measures at trailer towage
It is necessary to consider that the brake way of the car towing the trailer, increases. Therefore, moving with the trailer, you should support the increased distance to ahead going car. Try to avoid sharp braking and turns. It can lead to folding of the lorry convoy or even переворачиванию the trailer.
Remember that the length of the lorry convoy considerably exceeds length of the single car. At turn to the right leave between edge of a carriageway and wheels of the right board of the car considerably большее distance, than usually to avoid arrival by trailer wheels on a border. Consider that at turn of the lorry convoy the trailer moves on an arch of smaller radius, than the car, and can drive or face an obstacle which the car freely passed. At overtaking of other vehicle do not hurry up to come back in the number as it can lead to collision of the overtaken car with the trailer.
The lorry convoy, in comparison with the single car, is more sensitive to action of impulses of a lateral wind and aerodynamic indignations from other cars. If you are overtaken at great speed by the heavy truck or the lorry convoy, try to support rectilinear and uniform movement of the car. To reduce the aerodynamic indignations operating on the lorry convoy from ahead going car, lower speed to leave a turbulent stream.
At towage of the trailer loading increases by all basic units and car systems. Therefore at frequent use of the car for trailer towage it is necessary to spend periodic maintenance service of the car according to regulations, characteristic for intense service conditions (Routine maintenance see the Head).
Additional loading on the car even more increases at lorry convoy operation in hilly district. At overcoming of long liftings watch closely a temperature mode of the engine on стрелочному to the index on a control panel. At approach of an arrow of the index to an overheat zone, switch off air conditioner (if it is equipped and included) and continue movement. If the temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine does not decrease, or continues to raise, stop on a roadside of road and allow to the engine to cool down.
At movement in hilly or a hilly terrain cyclic switching of the third and fourth transfers of automatic transmission can be observed. In this case it is necessary to pass in the lowered range «3» that will prevent an overheat and excessive deterioration of details of frictional elements АТ. In order to avoid an overheat of brake mechanisms at movement on long descents use braking by the engine. For effective braking by the engine include the lowered range or one of the lowest steps of an automatic transmission.
At a lorry convoy stop on lifting do not keep it on a place by pressing педели gas, is can lead to overheat АТ. Use working brake system, or a lay brake.
At management of automatic transmission in a manual mode use the third, second and first transfers, being conformed to speed of movement of the car and road conditions. Towing the trailer, do not include the fourth transfer. In Specifications recommended high-speed ranges for use of various steps of a transmission are resulted.
At lorry convoy statement on long parking, especially on descent or lifting, accept all safety measures for reliable braking of the car and the trailer. Turn forward wheels of the car so that at скатывании lorry convoys they have rested in бордюрный a stone. Completely cock a lay brake and translate the lever of the selector of ranges in position «Р». On equipped РКПП models include the first, or a reverse gear. In addition enclose under both wheels of the trailer противооткатные boots.
Management of the lorry convoy at movement by a backing presents certain difficulties and demands from the driver of special skills and training. Move a backing cautiously and slowly, do not rotate unduly quickly a steering wheel. At maneuvering by a backing in the constrained conditions it is useful, that someone, standing outside, watched movings of the trailer and directed your actions. Keep in mind that at steering wheel rotation clockwise (to the right) the trailer moves to the left, and on the contrary. At maneuvering of the lorry convoy by a backing it is recommended to keep for a steering wheel rim from below (instead of from above, as usually, at movement by a forward course). At such successful fellow habitual conformity between a direction of turn of a steering wheel and trailer movement remains: hand displacement to the left leads to trailer turn also to the left and on the contrary.