Opel Astra, Zafira
Since 1998 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Cars Opel Astra and Zafira
+ The operation manual
+ Routine maintenance
+ The engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating
+ The power supply system and release
- Engine electric equipment
- Electronic control system of ignition (and injection) petrol engines
Checks of serviceability of functioning of system of ignition
Diagnostics of malfunctions - the general information and preliminary checks
System of onboard self-diagnostics OBD - the general information
Application of an oscillograph for supervision of workers of a control system
Removal and installation of the module of ignition
Check and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition
Removal and installation of the switch of ignition
Removal and installation of the gauge of emergency pressure of oil
Removal and installation of the gauge of level of impellent oil
Removal and installation of the gauge of temperature of impellent oil (diesel models)
+ Systems of preheat and heating of fuel of the diesel engine
+ Charge and start systems
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Coupling and power shafts
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Onboard electric equipment
System of onboard self-diagnostics OBD - the general information
Data on diagnostic devices
The most convenient devices for diagnostics of control systems by the engine of modern models of cars are manual input readers сканерного type. Scanners of the first generation serve for reading of codes of malfunctions of systems OBD-I. Before application the input reader should be checked up on conformity of model and year of release of the checked car. Some scanners are multipurpose at the expense of possibility of change of a cartridge depending on model of the diagnosed car (Ford, GM, Chrysler, etc.), others are adhered to requirements of the regional authorities and are intended for use in certain areas of the world (Europe, Asia, the USA etc.).
With introduction in manufacture meeting the requirements of last legislations on preservation of the environment of system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II) input readers of a special design have started to be issued. Some manufacturers have adjusted release of the scanners intended for use by mechanics-fans in house conditions, - ask in shops of automobile accessories.
Some scanners besides usual diagnostic operations allow at connection to the personal computer to unpack stored in memory of the module of management basic schemes of an electric equipment (if those are put), to program anticreeping system, to observe signals in safety lock chains in real time.
Basically, reading written down in memory of system of self-diagnostics of codes of malfunctions can be made by means of a control lamp of refusals MIL and a wire-crosspiece established between concrete plugs of a 16-contact diagnostic socket.
The general description of system OBD
Appointment of some conclusions of standard 16-contact socket DLC of system OBD II:
System OBD structure includes some the diagnostic devices making monitoring of separate parametres of systems of decrease of toxicity and fixing revealed refusals in memory of the onboard processor in the form of individual codes of malfunctions. The system makes also check of gauges and actuation mechanisms, supervises operational cycles of a vehicle, provides possibility of freezing of parametres and clearing of the block of memory.
All models described in the present Management are equipped by system of onboard diagnostics of the second generation (OBD-II). A system Basic element is the onboard processor, more often named the electronic module of management (ECM). ECM is a brain of a control system of the engine. The initial data arrives on the module from various information gauges and other electronic components (switches, the relay etc.) . On the basis of the analysis of the data arriving from information gauges and according to put in memory of the processor in base parametres, ECM develops commands on operation of various operating relays and actuation mechanisms, carrying out thereby updating of working parametres of the engine and providing peak efficiency of its return at the minimum expense of fuel. Data read-out of memory of processor OBD-II is made by means of the special scanner connected to a 16-contact diagnostic socket of reading of a database (DLC), located under a decorative cover on the central console ahead of the lever of a drive of a lay brake (illustrations Diagnostic socket DLC see it is located in the central console ahead of the lever of a lay brake under a decorative cover, the Site of socket DLC in consoles and the Diagnostic socket systems OBD II, - at connection use standard cable OBD-II J1962).
On service of components of control systems by the engine / of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases special guarantee certificates with the prolonged period of validity extend. It is not necessary to undertake attempts of independent performance of problem diagnostics ECM or replacement of components of system, to an exit of terms of the given obligations, - address to experts of firm car repair shops of company Opel.
Information gauges (depending on a car complete set)
Oxygen gauges (ljambda-probes)
The gauge develops a signal which amplitude depends on a difference of the maintenance of oxygen (О2) in the fulfilled gases of the engine and external air.
The gauge of position of a cranked shaft (СКР)
The gauge informs ECM on position of a cranked shaft and engine turns. The given information is used by the processor at definition of the moments of injection of fuel and installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.
The gauge of position of pistons (CYP)
On the basis of the analysis of signals ECM arriving from the gauge calculates position of the piston of the first cylinder and uses the given information at definition of the moments and sequence of injection of fuel in chambers of combustion of the engine.
Gauge VMT (TDC)
Signals developed by the gauge are used ECM at definition of installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition at the moment of engine start.
The gauge of temperature of a cooling liquid of the engine (EATS)
On the basis of information ESM/arriving from the gauge carries out necessary updatings of structure of an air-fuel mix and a corner of an advancing of ignition, and also supervises system EGR work.
The gauge of temperature of soaked up air (IAT)
ECM uses the information arriving from gauge IAT at updatings of a stream of fuel, installations of a corner of an advancing of ignition and management of system EGR functioning.
The gauge of position throttle заслонки (TPS)
The gauge is located on the case of a throttle and connected to an axis throttle заслонки. On amplitude given out TPS signal ECM defines a corner of opening throttle заслонки (copes the driver from a gas pedal) and in appropriate way corrects fuel giving in inlet ports of chambers of combustion. Gauge refusal, or easing of its fastening leads to faults of injection and infringements of stability of turns of idling.
The gauge of absolute pressure in the pipeline (МАР)
The gauge supervises variations of depth of depression in the inlet pipeline, connected with changes of turns of a cranked shaft and loading on the engine and will transform the received information to a peak signal. ECM uses delivered by gauges MAR and IAT the information at thin updatings of giving of fuel.
The gauge of atmospheric pressure (BARO)
The gauge develops the peak signal proportional to changes of atmospheric pressure which is used ECM at definition of duration of the moments of injection of fuel. The gauge is built in module ECM and to service in an individual order is not subject.
The detonation gauge (KS)
The gauge reacts to change of level of the vibrations connected with detonations in the engine. On the basis of information ECM arriving from the gauge carries out corresponding updating of a corner of an advancing of ignition.
The gauge of speed of movement of the car (VSS)
As appears from its name, the gauge informs the processor on current speed of movement of the car.
The gauge of size of opening of valve EGR
The gauge notifies ECM on displacement size плунжера valve EGR. The received information is used then the processor at management of system functioning рециркуляции the fulfilled gases.
The pressure gauge in a fuel tank
The gauge is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and serves for tracing of pressure of steams of gasoline in a tank. On the basis of information ECM arriving from the gauge gives out commands on operation of electromagnetic valves of a purge of system.
The gauge-switch of pressure of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel (PSP)
On the basis of information ECM arriving from gauge-switch PSP provides increase of turns of idling at the expense of operation of the gauge of system of stabilisation of turns of idling (IAC) for the purpose of indemnification of increasing loadings on the engine, connected with functioning of the steering hydraulic booster at fulfilment of maneuvers.
In addition to the data arriving from VSS, ECM receives also the information from gauges placed in a transmission, or connected to it. Number of such gauges concern:
The gauge-switch of management of inclusion муфты couplings of the conditioner of air
At giving of a food from the battery to the electromagnetic valve of compressor K/V the corresponding information signal arrives on ECM which regards it as the certificate of increase of loading on the engine and in appropriate way corrects turns of its idling.
The relay of the fuel pump
ECM makes activation of the relay of the fuel pump at поворачивании the ignition key in position START or RUN. At inclusion of ignition relay activation provides pressure lifting in the power supply system. More detailed information on the main relay is resulted in the Head of the Power supply system and release.
Injector () fuel
ECM provides individual inclusion of each of injectors according to the established order of ignition. Besides, the module supervises duration of opening of the injectors, defined in the width of an operating impulse measured in milliseconds and defining quantity of fuel injected into the cylinder. More detailed information by a principle of functioning of system of injection, replacement and service of injectors is resulted in the Head of the Power supply system and release.
The module of management of ignition (ICM)
The module operates functioning of the coil of ignition, defining a demanded base advancing on the basis of developed ECM commands.
The valve of stabilisation of turns of idling (IAC)
Valve IAC carries out a dosage of quantity of air which is restarted up bypassing throttle заслонки when last is closed, or occupies idling position. Opening of the valve and formation результирующего an air stream operates ECM.
The electromagnetic valve of a purge of a coal adsorber
The valve is a component of system of catching of fuel evaporations (EVAP) and, working at the command of ECM, carries out release of steams which have accumulated in an adsorber of fuel in the inlet pipeline for the purpose of their burning in the course of normal functioning of the engine.
Electromagnet of management of a purge of a coal adsorber
The electromagnet is used ECM at check by system OBD-II of serviceability of functioning of system EVAP.
Reading of codes of malfunctions and clearing of memory of the processor
At revealing of the malfunction repeating successively in spirit trips, ECM gives out a command on inclusion of the control lamp built in in an instrument guard «Check up the engine», named also the indicator of refusals (MIL). Simultaneously the monitor is switched to emergency operation. The lamp will continue to burn until memory of system of self-diagnostics will not be cleared of the codes of the revealed malfunctions brought in it (see more low).
Reading of codes by means of the scanner
Reading of codes of malfunctions is made by connection of the special input reader (see above) to 16-contact diagnostic socket DLC (illustrations Diagnostic socket DLC see it is located in the central console ahead of the lever of a lay brake under a decorative cover, the Site of socket DLC in consoles and the Diagnostic socket systems OBD II, - at connection use standard cable OBD-II J1962), - operate according to instructions of the menu of the device. The list of codes is resulted in Specifications.
Reading of codes by means of a control lamp of refusals MIL
At reading of the codes specifying in excessive understating of level of a signal, first of all, it is necessary to make sure of reliability of grounding of a corresponding component. Overestimate of level of a signal appears connected with electroconducting breakage more often.
The information maintenance of categories of a 5-digit code of kind P0380
Categories of a code of kind Р 0 3 8 0 have following value (from left to right):
Clearing of memory OBD II
For clearing of memory ЕСМ switch off ignition, take a crosspiece earthing the plug of socket DLC, and disconnect the plug of the battery not less than for 60 seconds, or connect to system the scanner and choose in its menu function CLEARING CODES (Removal of codes), - further follow instructions highlighted on the device.
The code written down in memory leaves automatically if corresponding malfunction does not appear during 20 starts of the engine following successively one after another (quantity of turns should be not more low 450 in a minute).
Track, that memory of system has been cleared before installation on the engine of new components of systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases. If before start of system after replacement of the failed information gauge not to make clearing of memory of refusals, ECM will bring in it a new code of malfunction. Memory clearing allows the processor to make change-over on new parametres. Thus the first 15-20 minutes after primary start of the engine before the termination of adaptation ECM, some infringement of stability of its turns can take place.